CIA Matters Timeline

1945

 

Operation PAPERCLIP – While other American agencies are hunting down Nazi war criminals for arrest, the U.S. intelligence community is smuggling them into America, unpunished, for their use against the Soviets.

 

Reinhard Gehlen, Hitler’s master spy who had built up an intelligence network in the Soviet Union, creates the "Gehlen Organization," a band of refugee Nazi spies who reactivate their networks in Russia.

 

Gehlen inflates Soviet military capabilities trying to  convince the Americans that war is imminent, and the West should make a preemptive strike. In the 50s he produces a fictitious "missile gap." Meanwhile, Russians penetrate the Gehlen Organization with double agen

 

1948

 

Covert-action wing created — Office of Policy Coordination, led by Wall Street lawyer Frank Wisner. Responsibilities include "propaganda, economic warfare, preventive direct action, including sabotage, antisabotage, demolition and evacuation procedures; subversion against hostile states, including assistance to underground resistance groups, and support of indigenous anti-communist elements in threatened countries of the free world."

 

Late 40s

 

Operation MOCKINGBIRD — The CIA begins recruiting American news organizations and journalists to become spies and disseminators of propaganda. The effort is headed by Wisner, Allan Dulles, Richard Helms and Philip Graham. Graham is publisher of The Washington Post, which becomes a major CIA player. Other media assets: ABC, NBC, CBS, Time, Newsweek, Associated Press, United Press International, Reuters, Hearst Newspapers, Scripps-Howard, Copley News Service and more. At least 25 organizations and 400 journalists will become CIA assets.

 

1953

 

Iran – CIA overthrows the democratically elected Mohammed Mossadegh in a military coup, after he threatened to nationalize British oil. The CIA replaces him with a dictator, the Shah of Iran, whose secret police, SAVAK, is as brutal as the Gestapo.

 

Operation MK-ULTRA — Inspired by North Korea’s brainwashing program, the CIA begins experiments on mind control. Gives LSD and other drugs to American subjects without their knowledge or against their will, causing several to commit suicide. Funded in part by the Rockefeller and Ford foundations, research includes propaganda, brainwashing, public relations, advertising, hypnosis, and other forms of suggestion.

 

1954

 

Guatemala — CIA overthrows the democratically elected Jacob Arbenz in a military coup after he threatened to nationalize the Rockefeller-owned United Fruit Company, in which CIA Director Allen Dulles also owns stock. Arbenz is replaced with a series of right-wing dictators who kill over 100,000 Guatemalans in the next 40 years.

 

1954-1958

 

North Vietnam — CIA officer Edward Lansdale fails to overthrow the communist government of North Vietnam; CIA also attempts to legitimize a tyrannical puppet regime in South Vietnam, headed by Ngo Dinh Diem. American intervention escalates, culminating in the Vietnam War.

 

1956

 

Hungary — Radio Free Europe incites Hungary to revolt by broadcasting Khruschev’s Secret Speech, in which he denounced Stalin. It also hints that American aid will help the Hungarians fight. Hungarians launch a doomed armed revolt, which  invites a major Soviet invasion. Conflict kills 7,000 Soviets and 30,000 Hungarians.

 

1957-1973

 

Laos — The CIA carries out approximately one coup per year trying to nullify Laos’ democratic elections. After the CIA’s army suffers numerous defeats, the U.S. starts bombing, dropping more bombs on Laos than all the U.S. bombs dropped in World War II.

 

1959

 

Haiti — U.S. military helps "Papa Doc" Duvalier become dictator of Haiti. He creates his own private police force, the "Tonton Macoutes," who terrorize the population with machetes, killing over 100,000 during the Duvalier family reign.

 

1961

 

The Bay of Pigs — The CIA sends 1,500 Cuban exiles to invade Castro’s Cuba, but fails, due to poor planning, security and backing. A promised American air strike never occurs. President Kennedy fires CIA Director Allen Dulles.

 

Dominican Republic — The CIA assassinates Rafael Trujillo, a murderous dictator Washington has supported since 1930. Trujillo’s business interests had begun competing with American business interests.

 

Ecuador — The CIA-backed military forces the democratically elected President Jose Velasco to resign. Vice President Carlos Arosemana replaces him; the CIA fills the now vacant vice presidency with its own man.

 

Congo (Zaire) — The CIA assassinates the democratically elected Patrice Lumumba. Four years of political turmoil follow.

 

1963

 

Dominican Republic — The CIA overthrows the democratically elected Juan Bosch in a military coup. The CIA installs a repressive, right-wing junta.

 

Ecuador — A CIA-backed military coup overthrows President Arosemana, whose independent (not socialist) policies have become unacceptable to Washington. A military junta assumes command, cancels the 1964 elections, and begins abusing human rights.

 

United States — (I’ll just leave out the John F. Kennedy assassination for now. But remember the names James Jesus Angleton and William King Harvey.)

 

1964

 

Brazil — A CIA-backed military coup overthrows the democratically elected government of Joao Goulart. The replacement junta become one of the most bloodthirsty in history. CIA trains the death squads who hunt down "communists" for torture, interrogation and murder.

 

1965

 

Indonesia — The CIA overthrows the democratically elected Sukarno with a military coup. His successor massacres between 500,000 to 1 million civilians accused of being "communist." The CIA supplies the names of countless suspects.

 

Dominican Republic — A popular rebellion breaks out, promising to reinstall Juan Bosch as the country’s elected leader. The revolution is crushed when U.S. Marines land to uphold the military regime by force. The CIA directs everything behind the scenes.

 

Greece — With the CIA’s backing, the king removes George Papandreous as prime minister (who has failed to vigorously support U.S. interests in Greece).

 

Congo (Zaire) — A CIA-backed military coup installs Mobutu Sese Seko as dictator. He exploits his desperately poor country for billions.

 

1966

 

The Ramparts Affair — Ramparts Magazine reports the CIA has paid the University of Michigan $25 million dollars to hire "professors" to train South Vietnamese students in covert police methods. MIT and other universities have received similar payments. Ramparts also reveals that the National Students’ Association is a CIA front. Students are sometimes recruited through blackmail and bribery, including draft deferments.

 

1967

 

Greece — A CIA-backed military coup overthrows the government two days before the elections. The favorite to win was George Papandreous, the liberal candidate. During the next six years, the "reign of the colonels" — backed by the CIA — will usher in the widespread use of torture and murder against political opponents.

 

Operation PHEONIX — The CIA helps South Vietnamese agents identify and then murder alleged Viet Cong leaders operating in South Vietnamese villages. According to a 1971 congressional report, this operation killed about 20,000 "Viet Cong."

 

1968

 

Operation CHAOS — The CIA has been illegally spying on American citizens since 1959, but with Operation CHAOS, CIA agents go undercover as student radicals to spy on and disrupt campus organizations protesting the Vietnam War. CHAOS will eventually spy on 7,000 individuals and 1,000 organizations.

 

Bolivia — A CIA-organized military operation captures legendary guerilla Che Guevara and helps kill him.

 

1969

 

Uruguay — The notorious CIA torturer Dan Mitrione arrives in Uruguay and convinces convinces them to use torture as a routine, widespread practice. The torture techniques he teaches to the death squads rival the Nazis’. Eventually revolutionaries kidnap and murder.

 

1970

 

Cambodia — The CIA overthrows Prince Sahounek, who is highly popular among Cambodians for keeping them out of the Vietnam War. Replacement throws Cambodian troops into battle, strengthening the Khmer Rouge, which achieves power in 1975 and massacres millions of its own people.

 

1971

 

Bolivia —CIA-backed military coup overthrows the leftist President Juan Torres. In the next two years, dictator Hugo Banzer will have over 2,000 political opponents arrested without trial, then tortured, raped and executed.

 

Haiti — "Papa Doc" Duvalier dies, leaving his 19-year old son "Baby Doc" Duvalier the dictator of Haiti. His son continues his bloody reign with full knowledge of the CIA.

 

1972

 

The Case-Zablocki Act — Congress passes an act requiring congressional review of executive agreements. In theory, this should make CIA operations more accountable, but it doesn’t.

 

Cambodia — Congress votes to cut off CIA funds for its secret war in Cambodia.

 

Wagergate Break-in — President Nixon sends in a team of burglars to wiretap Democratic offices at Watergate. The team members have extensive CIA histories, including James McCord, E. Howard Hunt and five of the Cuban burglars who work for the Committee to Reelect the President (CREEP.

 

1973

 

Chile — The CIA overthrows and assassinates Salvador Allende, Latin America’s first democratically elected socialist leader after Allende nationalizes American-owned firms in Chile. ITT offers the CIA $1 million for a coup (reportedly refused). The CIA replaces Allende with General Augusto Pinochet, who will torture and murder thousands of his own countrymen in a crackdown on labor leaders and the political left

 

**Within a short time, Pinochet begins to use Chile’s Colonia Dignidad, tucked away in the Andes, as a torture facility. The CIA uses this “utopia farm” to train CIA operatives.

 

Read about the Colony in The Plan. More coming in a sequel. (That’s why I am doing this research!)

 

CIA begins internal investigations — William Colby, the Deputy Director for Operations, orders all CIA personnel to report any and all illegal activities they know about. This information is later reported to Congress.

 

Watergate Scandal — The CIA’s main collaborating newspaper in America, The Washington Post, reports Nixon’s crimes long before any other newspaper takes up the subject. The two reporters, Woodward and Bernstein, make almost no mention of the CIA’s many fingerprints all over the scandal.

 

It is later revealed that Woodward was a Naval intelligence briefer to the White House, and knows many important intelligence figures, including General Alexander Haig. His main source, "Deep Throat," is probably one of those.

 

CIA Director Helms Fired — President Nixon fires CIA Director Richard Helms for failing to help cover up the Watergate scandal. New CIA director William Colby appears more open to CIA reform.

 

1974

 

CHAOS exposed — Pulitzer prize winning journalist Seymour Hersh publishes a story about Operation CHAOS, the domestic surveillance and infiltration of anti-war and civil rights groups in the U.S.

 

Angleton fired — Congress holds hearings on the illegal domestic spying efforts of James Jesus Angleton, the CIA’s chief of counterintelligence resulting in his dismissal from the CIA.

 

House clears CIA in Watergate — The House of Representatives clears the CIA of any complicity in Nixon’s Watergate break-in.

 

The Hughes Ryan Act — Congress passes an amendment requiring the president to report nonintelligence CIA operations to the relevant congressional committees in a timely fashion.

 

1975

 

Australia — The CIA helps topple the democratically elected, left-leaning government of Prime Minister Edward Whitlam.

 

Angola —Henry Kissinger launches a CIA-backed war in Angola, a country of little strategic importance and not seriously threatened by communism. The CIA backs the brutal leader of UNITAS, Jonas Savimbi. This entirely pointless war kills over 300,000 Angolans.

 

"The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence" — Victor Marchetti and John Marks publish this whistle-blowing history of CIA crimes and abuses.

 

"Inside the Company" — Philip Agee publishes a diary of his life inside the CIA. Agee has worked in covert operations in Latin America during the 60s, and details the crimes in which he took part.

 

Congress investigates CIA wrong-doing — Public outrage compels Congress to hold hearings on CIA crimes. Senator Frank Church heads the Senate investigation ("The Church Committee"), and Representative Otis Pike heads the House investigation. (Despite a 98 percent incumbency reelection rate, both Church and Pike are defeated in the next elections.) Church dies three years later from cancer at the age of 59.

 

Rockefeller Commission — In an attempt to reduce the damage done by the Church Committee, President Ford creates the "Rockefeller Commission" to whitewash CIA history. Vice President Nelson Rockefeller, is himself a major CIA figure. Five of the commission’s eight members are also members of the Council on Foreign Relations, a CIA-dominated organization.

 

1979

 

Iran — The CIA fails to predict the fall of the Shah of Iran, a longtime CIA puppet, and the rise of Muslim fundamentalists who are furious at the CIA’s backing of SAVAK, the Shah’s bloodthirsty secret police. In revenge, the Muslims take 52 Americans hostage in the U.S. embassy in Tehran.

 

Afghanistan — The Soviets invade Afghanistan. The CIA immediately begins supplying arms to any faction willing to fight the occupying Soviets. When the Soviets leave Afghanistan, civil war erupts. Fanatical Muslim extremists now possess state-of-the-art weaponry. One of these is Sheik Abdel Rahman, who will become involved in the World Trade Center bombing in New York.

 

El Salvador — An idealistic group of young military officers, repulsed by the massacre of the poor, overthrows the right-wing government. However, the U.S. compels the inexperienced officers to include many of the old guard in key positions in their new government and soon, things are back to "normal." The military government represses and kills civilian protesters.

 

Nicaragua — Anastasios Samoza II, the CIA-backed dictator, falls. The Marxist Sandinistas take over government, and they are initially popular because of their will become the Contras, who fight a CIA-backed guerilla war against the Sandinista government throughout the 1980s.

 

1980

 

El Salvador — The Archbishop of San Salvador, Oscar Romero, pleads with President Carter "Christian to Christian" to stop aiding the military government slaughtering his people. Carter refuses. Shortly afterwards, right-wing leader Roberto D’Aubuisson has Romero shot through the heart while saying Mass. The country soon dissolves into civil war.The CIA and U.S. Armed Forces supply the government with overwhelming military and intelligence superiority. CIA-trained death squads roam the countryside, committing atrocities and by 1992, some 63,000 Salvadorans are killed.

 

1981

 

Iran/Contra Begins — The CIA begins selling arms to Iran at high prices, using the profits to arm the Contras fighting the Sandinista government in Nicaragua. CIA training to Contras includes instruction on economic sabotage, propaganda, extortion, bribery, blackmail, interrogation, torture, murder and political assassination.

 

1983

 

Honduras — The CIA gives Honduran military officers the Human Resource Exploitation Training Manual – 1983, which teaches how to torture people. Honduras’ notorious "Battalion 316" then uses these techniques, with the CIA’s full knowledge, on thousands of leftist dissidents. At least 184 are murdered.

 

1984

 

The Boland Amendment — The last of a series of Boland Amendments is passed. These amendments have reduced CIA aid to the Contras; the last one cuts it off completely. However, CIA Director William Casey is already prepared to "hand off" the operation to Colonel Oliver North, who illegally continues supplying the Contras through the CIA’s informal, secret, and self-financing network. This includes "humanitarian aid" donated by Adolph Coors and William Simon, and military aid funded by Iranian arms sales.

 

1986

 

Eugene Hasenfus — Nicaragua shoots down a C-123 transport plane carrying military supplies to the Contras. The lone survivor, Eugene Hasenfus, turns out to be a CIA employee, as are the two dead pilots. The airplane belongs to Southern Air Transport, a CIA front. Meanwhile, President Reagan claims that the CIA is not illegally arming the Contras.

 

Iran/Contra Scandal — In 1986. Congress holds hearings, and several key figures (like Oliver North) lie under oath to protect the intelligence community. CIA Director William Casey dies of brain cancer before Congress can question him. All reforms enacted by Congress after the scandal are useless.

 

Haiti — Rising popular revolt in Haiti means that "Baby Doc" Duvalier will remain "President for Life" only if he has a short one. The U.S. flies Duvalier to the South of France for a comfortable retirement and then rigs the upcoming elections in favor of another right-wing military strongman. However, violence keeps the country in political turmoil for another four years. The CIA tries to strengthen the military by creating the National Intelligence Service (SIN), which suppresses popular revolt through torture and assassination.

 

1989

 

Panama — The U.S. invades Panama to overthrow a dictator of its own making, General Manuel Noriega who has been on the CIA’s payroll since 1966, and has been transporting drugs with the CIA’s knowledge since 1972. But he finally angers Washington… so out he goes.

 

1990

 

Haiti — Leftist priest Jean-Bertrand Aristide captures 68 percent of the vote. After only eight months in power, the CIA-backed military deposes him. More military dictators brutalize the country, as thousands of Haitian refugees escape the turmoil in barely seaworthy boats. As popular opinion calls for Aristide’s return, the CIA begins a disinformation campaign calling the courageous priest mentally unstable.

 

1991

 

The Gulf War — The U.S. liberates Kuwait from Iraq. During this costly eight-year war, the CIA built up Hussein’s forces with sophisticated arms, intelligence, training and financial backing.

 

The Fall of the Soviet Union — The CIA fails to predict this most important event of the Cold War, the fall of the Soviet Union This robs the CIA of its reason for existence: fighting communism, leading some to accuse the CIA of intentionally failing to predict the downfall of the Soviet Union. The intelligence community’s budget is not significantly reduced after the demise of communism.

 

1992

 

Economic Espionage — After the Cold War, the CIA is increasingly used for economic espionage. This involves stealing the technological secrets of competing foreign companies and giving them to American ones.

 

1993

 

Haiti — The chaos in Haiti grows so bad that President Clinton has no choice but to remove the Haitian military dictator, Raoul Cedras, on threat of U.S. invasion. Aristide is returned to power only after being forced to accept an agenda favorable to the country’s ruling class.

 

 

 

SORRY, BUT I NEED A BREATHER. CAN YOU HELP ME FILL IN THE GAPS?